A standard, cumulative index off cross-physical fitness is actually computed for every mixture of maternal forest and you can pollen donor, predicated on adult fruits put, vegetables germination, and you can survivorship and you can growth of seedlings. For every single species, mixed-design study of variance was utilized to assess the consequences regarding crossing treatment (repaired effect; which have maternal forest incorporated given that an arbitrary impact) into part of hand-pollinated plant life means mature good fresh fruit, cost out LGBT Erwachsene Dating Seiten of seeds germination and you may seedling survivorship, seedling size on step 1 yr, and you can collective physical fitness. Numerous patterns had been checked-out playing with ANOVA: (a) and additionally the services, (b) leaving out unbalanced solutions, permitting evaluation off telecommunications words, (c) without selfing medication (as maternal woods had been largely otherwise totally thinking-incompatible), and you can (d) grouping all in this-Sinharaja outcrossing services to check on the result out-of contained in this- against. between-tree crossing. The effect regarding crossing length on each parameter are after that checked using linear or quadratic regression studies, depending on the shape of the connection. Finally, for every single maternal tree, the effects of nearby-neighbors and you may enough time-distance mating have been estimated by way of indices from biparental inbreeding despair and you can outbreeding despair, correspondingly, considering collective physical fitness values.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: Fdos,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in 0% and <1% fruit set, respectively. Fruit set from the intermediate-distance cross-pollinations varied across maternal trees, but with one exception (nearest-neighbor treatment at Tree number 1) indicated optimal fruit set at an outcrossing range of ?2 km (distant neighbor treatment; Fig. 2b). All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect, but no maternal tree effect (Tables 2B and 3B). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was significant only when the selfed treatment was excluded (quadratic regression model: arcsin square root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; Fdos,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.