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It has been conducted almost annually since 1972 by the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Center. The survey regularly asks people how they feel about government spending for a range of specific purposes. In 1993 and again in 1998 it included special questions about people’s attitudes towards the arts and culture. The relationship between income and attitudes towards the arts is similarly complex, because economic success increases the value that people place on the arts, but militates against support for public expenditures. Respondents with higher incomes are much more likely than others to vouch for the importance of the arts for children and the community, but are no more likely than others to endorse federal spending that supports the arts. Moreover, arts advocates have often sought to employ polls to preach to the converted rather than to change opinion.

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Over the past decade, by attacking the NEA at its most vulnerable points, the right has created a powerful, if small, coalition of Christian conservatives and Republican partisans committed to ending thirty years of federal support for the arts. What the Endowment’s enemies have been unable to win in the court of public opinion, they have won in the stadium of political strategy. Mental engagement can be seen as a kind of mental state and mechanisms in information processing (Ben Khedher et al., 2019). Well-being is part of these psychological mechanisms and is considered a combination of feelings that can support work performance. Huppert posited that well-being encompasses happiness, interest, participation, self-confidence, and other emotions that influence the development of potential abilities and control over human life .

  • The difference is visible across many kinds of attitudes, but is especially strong in responses to questions about government support for the arts, which African American respondents are more likely to favor.
  • Emerging technologies in recent years, such as tablets, smart phones, laptops, and other electronic smart devices, have initiated a new trend in the field of education and have enriched teaching and learning (Huda et al., 2018).
  • Another important influence is that online training programs can change teachers’ understanding of teaching.
  • Compared to traditional offline learning, online learning is full of many factors influencing online learning engagement (Montgomerie et al., 2016), which requires learners to be more self-disciplined.
  • When considering the effectiveness of teacher online training, we inevitably pay much more attention to the psychological mechanism of teachers’ learning process including mental engagement.
  • By contrast, in online training, teachers can participate in the same course anywhere and anytime, and can conduct more meaningful discussions with their peers through collaboration and social media tools.

Ultimately, mental engagement influences learning behaviors and participation in the learning process. Bates believes that the main reason why online learning is applied widely is not only to improve education and training opportunities and learning quality, but also to reduce costs and to improve effectiveness . Compared to traditional offline learning, online learning is full of many factors influencing online learning engagement (Montgomerie et al., 2016), which requires learners to be more self-disciplined.

Attitudes Of The Communicator Towards The Public Relations Function In The Pre

Significantly, among people with strong opinions the NEA’s opponents have a decided edge. In 1990, for example, only one in forty people wanted “much more” spending on the arts, whereas almost one in five wanted “much less.” Such figures may be enough to embolden congressional conservatives, especially in the absence of an equally firm countervailing force of comparable size. The interview was mainly conducted through face-to-face, supplemented by phone and video conferencing. Firstly, six teachers were interviewed by face-to-face, and the whole process of this semi-structured interview was recorded in audio or video. After the interview, we converted the audio or video to texts and conducted systematic content analysis. We conducted more follow-up interviews with these teachers, to ensure our correct understanding and interpretation of data.

Data Availability Statement

Paul DiMaggio is research coordinator, Princeton University Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies and chair, Princeton University Sociology Department. Becky Pettit is a doctoral candidate at Princeton in sociology and the Office of Population Research. In addition to her pelaa work in the arts, she is completing a dissertation on the effects of planned residential mobility on the achievement and welfare of children from low income families. The lesson we take from this account is not that federal arts support is doomed or its opponents invincible. Rather our conclusion is that public opinion is uncertain, protean, and up for grabs; that strategy matters; and that good information is necessary to develop good strategy.

Satisfaction is a concept that comes from the business field and involves customers’ intentions to purchase goods or to spread a positive attitude toward goods and services. In education, understanding learner satisfaction is the best way to assess the effectiveness of the training program . For online education, teachers are generally satisfied when they receive good institutional support (Stickney et al., 2019). For online art learning, satisfaction influences teachers’ willingness to participate in training and learning, and their skills will also improve.

Learning As Transformation: Critical Perspectives On A Theory In Progress The Jossey

The results reveal significant correlations between the learning environment, need satisfaction, mental engagement, and behavior. Moreover, this study reveals the group characteristics of art teachers, which can actually be supported by online learning programs. These findings provide insights into how art teachers view and use online learning, and thus can shed lights on their professional development.

There is no single answer to the question “how much do Americans support public arts programs? ” because polling results are influenced strongly by question wording and related factors. (For example, when asked if they approved of federal funding for the arts, two out of three respondents agree. But when asked in sequence if they approve of public arts funding at the city, county, state, and federal level , respectively, fewer than two in five say “yes” to federal support.

Overall, art education is a discipline to cultivate visual ability and innovation skills in primary and secondary schools. Online learning for art teachers is also important because of its mediation in transfer specific contents through all kinds of information devices . Online learning has become an important way for teachers’ self-development in that teachers can learn flexibly and independently. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this form of online learning has become more common in China. It can promote the integration of technology into art discipline, helping art teachers go beyond the limitations of traditional art instructions . However, due to the hands-on requirement of art education, how art teachers can train through an online learning environment requires further investigation.

The natural constituency for public arts programs should be the people who attend arts activities most frequently and value the arts most highly. But because such people are drawn disproportionately from among well-educated, high-income Americans who tend to be skeptical of federal initiatives, they are difficult to recruit to efforts to defend the NEA. Such survey techniques help us to see attitudes not simply as separate bits of data but as interlocking narratives — and thus enable us to understand the ambivalence, uncertainty, and complexity of the beliefs and opinions that drive people’s political behavior.

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